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A newborn chick uses its egg tooth to break the shell of its egg
and escape from it at hatching. This toothlike structure is then
shed since its only use is to help the bird break the eggshell.
Some animals. such as lizards and snakes, develop a true tooth
that projects outside the row of other teeth. This tooth helps
adults hatch their young.
The word shed in the passage is closest in meaning to
Imitation gems are usually made of glass or plastics. In recent
years, an enormous array of plastics has become available for
imitations, but these materials are soft and lack the clarity
present in real gemstones. Therefore, they are less satisfactory
for the purpose than glass. Flint glasses, containing lead oxide,
have higher refractive indices and therefore possess a brilliance
not found in plastics. This makes flint glasses more suitable than
plastic for imitation gems.
The word brilliance in the passage is closest in meaning to
During a shower, meteors appear to spread from a point in the
sky, called the radiant. These radiant points give each shower its
name. For example, the Perseids shower appears to radiate from
the constellation Perseus. During the heaviest showers, 30 to 70
meteors may be seen every hour, but on unique occasions in a
spectacular display, that number may be visible every second.
The word unique in the passage is closest in meaning to
Sometimes, advertisers impact society by the use of advocacy
ads, whose purpose is not to persuade the public to buy a
product, but to change the public’s view about a specific issue.
Companies use this advertising to influence public opinion.
Critics say that such ads are unfairly one-sided; advertisers say
that the mass media have been equally one-sided in failing to
report company views.
The word persuade in the passage is closest in meaning to
In the mid-1800s, gold and silver were common components
of dentures. As a result, they were very expensive. However, in
1851, a process to harden the juices of certain tropical plants
into rubber was discovered. This new product could be molded to
a model of a patient’s mouth and artificial teeth could be made.
As a result, when used in conjunction with new manufacturing
methods, these molds caused the cost of dentures to fall
The phrase in conjunction with in the passage is closest in
The issue of where human life first arose has always been an
intriguing question for science. Many guesses, or hypotheses,
have been advanced, ranging from Asia to Europe. However, the
oldest known human bones, or fossils, were discovered in East
Africa in 1972. They are nearly 2 million years old. Their age was
determined by measuring the age of the rocks surrounding them
and comparing them to other fossils.
In stating that the origin of human life is an intriguing question, the author means that it
The Sioux and Cheyenne peoples told outsiders not to look for
gold on Indian land. Eventually, the Sioux and Cheyenne had
to defend their land against a U.S. army force in the Battle of
Little Bighorn. This battle, also known as “Custer’s Last Stand,”
was led by General George Custer. Custer was cautioned by his
advisors not to underestimate the strength of his opponent, but
ignored their advice, resulting in the defeat of the U.S. force.
The word cautioned in the passage is closest in meaning to
Clothing and adornments used among certain cultures often
reflect the social status of an individual. Body painting and
tattooing are common methods used to distinguish social status.
Other methods include the use of lip, ear, and nose rings, in
addition to bracelets, arm bands, necklaces, and head ornaments
made of delicate, colorful feathers. It is common for groups of
people to use the natural resources around them to work out a
way of visually designating social rank.
The verb work out in the passage is closest in meaning to
Species of alyssum are particularly suitable as edging plants for
flower gardens. Alyssum is generally grayish with yellow or white
flowers. One popular species is sweet alyssum, a perennial that
grows up to nine inches tall. The narrow, green-gray leaf of the
sweet alyssum usually bears many silvery hairs.
The word bears in the passage is closest in meaning to
In ancient times, the labyrinth was a structure composed of a
complex series of passageways and chambers, probably at first
designed to baffle enemies. A labyrinth either had branched
paths with misleading ends, or it contained one long meandering
path that led to a central end.
The word baffle in the passage is closest in meaning to