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A customs union is an organization of autonomous countries
that agree that international trade between member states is free
of restrictions. They place a tariff or other restriction on products
entering the customs union from nonmember states. One of the
best-known customs unions is the European Union, or EU.
The word autonomous in the passage is closest in meaning to
The search to hide natural body odors led to the discovery and
use of musk. Musk is a scent used in perfumes. It is obtained
from the sex glands of the male musk deer, a small deer native
to the mountainous regions of the Himalayas. The odor of musk,
penetrating and persistent, is believed to act as an aphrodisiac.
In animals, musk serves the functions of defining territory,
providing recognition, and attracting mates.
The word persistent in the passage is closest in meaning to
Until the late ninteenth century all rubber was extracted
haphazardly from trees found in the jungles of South America.
It was expensive and the supply was uncertain. However, during
the 1860s the idea of transporting rubber trees to the British
colonies in Asia was conceived. This led to the larger-scale
cultivation of rubber trees on organized plantations.
The word haphazardly in the passage is closest in meaning to
Some animals use bold coloration to disrupt a would-be
predator’s perception. Other animals have color patterns that
blend with their surroundings. Such coloration serves for
protection, to attract mates, or to distract enemies. Called cryptic
coloration, it uses the animals’ living place, habits, and means of
defense. Cryptic coloration may blend an animal so well with its
environment that it is virtually invisible.
The word disrupt in the passage is closest in meaning to
Cognitive approaches to therapy assume that emotional disorders
are the result of irrational beliefs or perceptions. The mind
may interpret an event as scary or calming, happy or sad. The
emotionally disordered person may perceive adverse events
as personal failures. Cognitive psychotherapies seek to make
the patient aware of the irrationality of this perception and to
substitute more rational evaluations of such events.
The word adverse in the passage is closest in meaning to
Increasingly, authorities are uneasy about teenagers who talk
or text on their phones while driving. For many, phone use
and driving are perfectly compatible; others, however, are more
easily distracted, especially while listening to music. The growing
number of accidents associated with phone use supports this
claim. Many communities now disapprove of this habit so much
that they have forbidden anyone of any age to use cell phones
In stating that many communities now disapprove of these
phones, the author means that they
1. fully endorse their popularity.
2. condemn or oppose their use.
3. favor their use only by adults.
4. agree to their unrestricted use.
Fans are used to circulate air in rooms and buildings and for
cooling and drying people, materials, or products. Even though
air that is circulated by a fan is comforting, no fan actually cools
the air. Air conditioners use a complicated process to cool the
air and create changes in temperature. While repairing a fan
is relatively simple, a professional repairman will often have
to intervene when home owners face problems with their air
The words to intervene in the passage is closest in meaning to
1. to be interested in
2. to learn about
3. to get involved
4. to be prepared
Tornadoes strike in many areas of the world, but nowhere are
they as frequent or as devastating as in the United States. A
vast “tornado belt” embraces large portions of the Great Plains
of the United States and the southeastern portion of the country.
Tornadoes pose the greatest threats to these areas, which are
especially vulnerable to abrupt changes in weather conditions.
The word abrupt in the passage is closest in meaning to
For women in the 1920s, freedom in dress reflected their new
freedom to take up careers. Only a small percentage of women
pursued such opportunities, but the revolutionary change
affected the types of clothes worn by most women. For example,
trousers became acceptable attire for almost all activities.
This milestone in the fashion world favored more stylish and
comfortable clothing instead of more formal modes of dress.
The word acceptable in the passage is closest in meaning to
The National Film Board of Canada was established in 1939
to produce films that reflect Canadian life and thought, and
to distribute them both domestically and abroad. By winning
awards from film festivals around the world, it has earned
international acclaim for the artistic and technical excellence
of its work.
The word acclaim in the passage is closest in meaning to